Packaging meets a range of vital functions in the supply from the producer to the consumer, and so packaging would not exist without the products it carries, just as many products would not exist without the packaging that provides a method for its delivery.

These are the functions that packaging meets:

a) Protection and preservation, preventing physical damage and preventing or inhibiting chemical and biological transformations during transport, handling and storage;
b) Consumption and retention, for instance facilitating the distribution and storage of a certain quantity of product by unitization and containerization;
c) Presentation / improvement of sales by adding value, attracting sales, branding and image;
d) Identification and information, by providing information on the product and the company, instructions for usage, handling and storage, barcodes readable by machines or people; e) Security, by highlighting that the seal has been broken; anti-forgery packaging;
f) Comfort of use by means of opening and closing, distribution.

In addition to the basic functions, packaging must be relevant to an ever-changing target audience (smaller families, lower income consumers) and to social needs that impact consumption.

Sustainable development/consumption influence the function of packaging. Initiatives such as the reduction of weight can produce remarkable results without affecting the product’s conditions of delivery, but there are limitations that cannot be exceeded without technological progress in terms of material, technology etc. For this reason, it is important that packaging design is integrated from an incipient stage with changes brought to the process that the product results from and any change of the product or packaging must consider the integrated system (that includes the product and several levels of packaging).

The safety of your products is tightly related to the quality of our packaging, and that is why BGMpack pays attention to all the processes afferent to the creation of packaging, starting with the flat crush resistance (FCT) and edge crush resistance (ECT) of the corrugated fiberboard.

Due to the flat crush and edge crush resistance characteristics, corrugated fiberboard boxes ensure protection for your products during transport and handling. The fiberboard’s crush resistance must be high enough so that the box at the base of the stack is not crushed if the user observes the established conditions regarding the weight of the packaged product. By determining the crush resistance of corrugated fiberboard, we can appreciate the crush resistance of the box and anticipate its behavior in actual stacking, handling and transport conditions.

Corrugated fiberboard, a paper product of complex structure and fiber composition, is the half-finished product of which corrugated fiberboard packaging is made. The characteristics of corrugated fiberboard are structural, resistance and printing related (the topping paper at the outside). The most important characteristics for corrugated fiberboard packaging are: weight, thickness, flat crash resistance, burst strength and edge crush resistance.

The manufacturing technology includes the following stages:

1Manufacturing the corrugated paper (core layer)
The corrugated paper is the main ingredient in the structure of corrugated fibreboard, due to its sinusoidal shape and rigid connections with the top and bottom layers. It opposes flattening (crashing), absorbs shocks on the surface of the fibreboard and contributes to its edge crush resistance. The most used type of paper for this corrugated core layer is 125g/m2.
2Manufacturing the smooth, outer layer paper
The outer layer paper must be printable and must provide resistance to the corrugated paper. In accordance to the fibre structure of the paper, two assortments of outer layer can be manufactured: kraft-liner, with minimum 80% resinous cellulose sulphate, and test-liner, with 100% waste paper or combinations of waste paper and cellulose. The resistance of test-liner is inferior to that of kraft-liner. The outer layers can be made of paper of 125 to 250 g/m2.
3Manufacturing the corrugated fibreboard
Corrugated fibreboard is made of Schrenz or Welenstof paper (the core paper for the corrugation) – which is 100% recyclable, and test-liner (50% recyclable – 50% cellulose) or kraft-liner paper (100% cellulose), which form the top of the fibreboard. The core is glued to the outer layers with a starch-based paste adhesive. In accordance to the number of layers, there can be several types of corrugated fibreboard:
  • type II - comprised of a corrugated layer and a flat layer,
  • type III – comprised of a corrugated layer caught between two flat layers, t
  • ype V – comprised of two corrugated layers and three flat layers,
  • type VII – comprised of three corrugated layers and four flat layers.
4Manufacturing corrugated fibreboard boxes
Starting with the corrugated board, we can make classic boxes (slotted and creased on a slotter) and pressed boxes (cut and creased on automated flatteners). The box manufacturing stages are: printing, slotting and creasing, plying/assembling, counting/pallet stacking.


Paper and fibreboard packaging cannot be recycled. It becomes waste and is capitalized by recycling in the paper and fibreboard manufacturing process. Paper and fibreboard waste is the most important secondary raw material for the paper and cellulose industry, due to the ecological and economic implications, such as:

a) The preservation of forests, as one ton of waste paper substitutes approximately five cube meters of wood mass for the production of an equivalent quantity of cellulose;
b) Processing waste takes two to three times less energy than processing raw fibres;
c) Wastewater resulted from processing waste is three to four times less polluted than that resulted from manufacturing cellulose.

In Romania, waste paper is used for corrugated fibreboard, duplex fibreboard, cardboard, toilet paper.

The efficient separation of waste at the source, including private households, is of great importance for achieving a high level of recycling. Due to the fact that paper and fibreboard waste is a commodity, in the EU there is a well-developed network of trade, collecting waste paper according to type and quality and delivering it to paper and fibreboard producers. BGMpack works in partnership with ECORom and continuously contributes to the recycling of all products it delivers to the market.

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